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|Despite living in the electronic age of Computers Cheap Wholesale MLB Jerseys , mobiles and internet, there is still no substitute for pen and paper. Even as you browse the Web, you probably have a pen within easy reach to jot down notes, scribble phone numbers, or even to doodle! Modern ballpoint pens are so inexpensive that we don't even think about them anymore -- you might have a cup on your desk that contains a dozen or so different pens that have wandered in from who knows where!
A ballpoint pen is a pen that uses a small rotating ball made of brass, steel or tungsten carbide to disperse ink as you write. All of the pens that preceded the ballpoint used a watery, dark India ink that fed through the pen using capillary action. There were many problems with this technology. For example:
The ink used to flow unevenly.
The ink was slow to dry.
The ink was exposed to the air while it is flowing through the pen, so it would not dry quickly or it would clog the pen.
The ball point pen was what the world was waiting for! The epicenter of the ballpoint pen is Cheap MLB Jerseys Free Shipping , of course, the ball. This ball acts as a buffer between the material you're writing on and the quick-drying ink inside the pen. The ball rotates freely and rolls out the ink as it is continuously fed from the ink reservoir (usually a narrow plastic tube filled with ink).
The ball is kept in place -- between the ink reservoir and the paper -- by a socket; and while it is in tight, it still has enough room to roll around as you write. As the pen moves across the paper, the ball turns and gravity forces the ink down the reservoir and onto the ball, where it is transferred onto the paper. It's this rolling mechanism that allows the ink to flow onto the top of the ball and roll onto the paper you're writing on, while at the same time sealing the ink from the air so it does not dry in the reservoir.
Because the tip of a normal ballpoint pen is so tiny, it is hard to visualize how the ball and socket actually work. One way to understand it clearly is to look at a bottle of roll-on antiperspirant, which uses the same technology at a much larger scale. The typical container of roll-on has the same goals a ballpoint pen does -- it wants to keep air out of the liquid antiperspirant while at the same time making it easy to apply. At this scale Cheap MLB Jerseys From China , it is easy to see how the mechanism works. Here's a shot of the ball end of a typical roll-on:
If you look inside the container, what you have is extremely simple -- the ball is exposed so it can pick up the liquid antiperspirant:
A ballpoint pen works exactly the same way. The tiny ball is held in a socket, and the back of the ball is exposed so it can pick up ink from the reservoir.
The ball fits into the socket with just enough space to move freely.
The size of a ballpoint pen's line is determined by the width of the ballpoint. A "point five millimeter" (0.5 mm) pen has a ball that will produce a line that is 0.5-mm wide, and a "point seven millimeter" pen (0.7 mm) has a ball that will produce a 0.7-mm line. Ballpoints come as tiny as "point one millimeter" wide ("ultra fine").
Throughout the history of ball pens many refinements in design took place, but the basic structure of the pen has remained the same. In the last 30 years, the ball pen market has seen massive development despite stiff competition from gel pens. Today, Elkos is a dominant player in the ball pen market, along with other manufacturers like Linc Cheap MLB Jerseys China , Todays, and Rotomac.
So the next time someone gives you a promotional pen or you buy one at the store, you will definitely recollect the amazing technology behind the ball pens.
Bodybuilding has its roots in India in the 11th century when men would lift a specifically sized piece of stone in order to determine which of the participants had the greatest strength.
However, bodybuilding became established in the West sometime during the period
1880 to 1930. Bodybuilding may be described as the art of displaying one?s muscles.
It did not really exist before the late 19th century, when it was brought to prominence by a Prussian called Eugen Sandow, who is now generally referred to as "The Father of Modern Bodybuilding". He is credited as being the founder of the sport since he was the first to present himself in front of an audience so that they could enjoy viewing his physique.
Although audiences enjoyed watching men with well-developed physique, these participants simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. On the other hand Sandow stage managed, with the help of his manager Cheap MLB Jerseys , an impressive show which was built to augment these displays.
He became so successful with his shows that he established several businesses and was among the first to market products based on his own brand name. As his popularity increased, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment that had mass appeal, including dumbbells, spring pulleys and tension bands.
He was a strong advocate of "the Grecian Ideal" which was based on the proportions of ancient Greek and Roman statues from the classical period that he regarded as personifying the perfect physique. This is the way in which he developed his own physique.
In the early years, men were judged by how closely they matched these "ideal" proportions. One of his greatest achievements was when he organised the first bodybuilding contest in 1901, which he called the "Great Competition", and held it in the Royal Albert Hall, in London. In order to create the required impact Cheap Jerseys China Free Shipping , Sandow himself was the main judge, and he was fortunate in securing the agreement of two leading luminaries of the period, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.